Appendices Appendix B Application of ICT in Subject Areas ICT in Natural Sciences
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Spreadsheets (Unit A4 and Unit E1)
Students can use spreadsheets to tabulate and calculate results of experiments; or for manipulation of variables to see certain effects that can be more clearly and quickly demonstrated with the use of spreadsheets. Students can also request various types of charts to be plotted from values entered into a spreadsheet.

Teachers could prepare templates which have values already entered in order to illustrate effects from the manipulation of variables which is appropriate for work on simulation and modelling.

At a more advanced level spreadsheets could be designed by the pupils themselves in order to help to solve a realistic and contextual problem (see Unit E1).

Databases (Unit A5 and Unit E2)
Students can create and use databases such as the characteristics of chemical elements in the periodic table, characteristics of plants, insects, and mammals; and interrogate these databases to find relationships and commonalties. As a first step, teachers could prepare databases into which students can add data.

At a more advanced level databases could be designed by the pupils themselves in order to help to solve a realistic and contextual problem (see Unit E2).

Composing Documents and Presentations (Unit A3 and Unit A6)
Students can use a word-processor or presentation software to reports on the results of experiments and research. Students will appreciate ready-to-use graphics, and the high quality graphics they can create themselves. They can use data and graphs emerging from measurement software (see Unit B1).

Information and Communication (Unit A7)
Students can use ICT to communicate with other students on a local network, or with students in other schools both locally and overseas. For research and specific assignments information available on Internet can be used. On-line data can be retrieved and shared with others about topics such as the weather, the state of the environment, space programs and so on.
Furthermore use can be made of readily available easy-to-use applets for simulation all kinds of natural processes and phenomena.

Measurement (Unit B1)
Using mechanical, temperature and other probes to monitor experiments, and feeding the readings directly into a spreadsheet of graphical program, helps to obtain reliable results more easily and makes classroom work more realistic. Several software tools exist which take readings, interpret these and present these graphically.

Modelling and Simulation (Unit B2)
The «Three-mile Island» disaster can be simulated in every classroom without any danger to students. When students have performed or have witnessed a demonstration, repeating the experience through modelling will give them further insight in the role of variables and parameters in a process.

Robots and Feedback Systems (Unit B3)
Students can build robots and use robotics to perform experiments, particularly in physics and technical areas. They may arrange for input from sensors, processing, output and feedback.