Approaches to ICT Development at School Level Table 1. Approoaches to ITC Development in Schools
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Table 1. Approaches to ITC Development in Schools

Emerging

Applying

Integrating

Transforming

Vision

Dominated by individual interest

Limited

Pragmatic

Driven by ICT specialist

Driven by subject specialists

Discrete areas

Leadership

Acceptance by entire learning community

Network centred community

Learning Pedagogy

Teacher centred

Didactic

Factual knowledge based learning

Teacher centred

Didactic

ICT a separate subject

Learner centred learning

Collaborative

Critical thinking and informed decision making

Whole learner, multi-sensory, preferred learning styles

Collaborative

Experiential

Development Plans and Policies

Non-existent

Accidental

Restrictive policies

No planned funding

Limited

ICT resource lead

Centralised policies

Hardware and software funding

Automating existing practices

Individual subject plans include ICT

Permissive policies

Broadly based funding, including teacher training

ICT is integral to overall school development plan

All students

All teachers

Inclusive policies

All aspects of ICT funding integral to overall school budget

Integral professional development

Facilities and resources

Standalone workstations for administration

Individual classrooms

Computers and printers

Word processing

Spreadsheets, databases, presentation

School administration software

Games

Computer lab or individual classrooms for ICT specific outcomes

Computers, printers and limited peripherals

Word processing

Spreadsheets, databases, presentation

ICT software

Internet access

Computer lab and/or classroom computers

Networked classrooms, intranet and Internet

ICT and learning resource rich learning centres

Range of devices, including: digital cameras, scanners, video and audio recorders, graphical calculators, portable computers, remote sensing devices

Video-conferencing Word processing, spreadsheets, databases, presentation softwares

Range of subject orientated content

Multimedia authoring, video/audio production

Range of subject specific software

Whole school learning and ICT infrastructure and access to technology resources a wide range of current devices

Emphasis on a diverse set of learning environments

All of the above and

Web based learning spaces

Brainstorming

Conferencing and collaboration

Distance education

Web courseware

Student self-management software

Understanding of the curriculum

ICT Literacy

Awareness of software

Responsibility of

individual teachers

Applying software within discrete subjects

Use of artificial and isolated contexts

Integration with non-ICT content

Integrated learning systems

Authentic contexts

Problem solving project methodology

Resources based learning

Virtual and real time contexts, new world modelling

ICT is accepted as a pedagogical agent itself

The curriculum is delivered by the web as well as by staff

Professional development for school staff

Individual interest

ICT applications training

Unplanned

Personal ICT skills

Subject specific

Professional skills

Integrating subject areas using ICT

Evolving

Focus on learning and management of learning

Self-managed, personal vision and plan, school supported

Innovative and creative

Integrated learning community – students/teachers co-learners

Community

Discrete donations

Problem driven

Accidental

Seeking donations and grants

Parental / community involvement in ICT

Subject based learning community providing discrete, occasional assistance, by request

Global and local networked communities

Broad based learning community actively involved, parents and families, business, industry, religious organisations, universities, vocational schools, voluntary organisations

Global and local, real and virtual

School is a learning resource for the community – physically and virtually

Assessment

Equipment based

Budget orientated

Discrete subjects

Didactic

Paper and pencil

Controlling

Closed tasks

Responsibility of individual teacher

Skills based

Teacher centred

Subject focused

Reporting levels

Moderated within subject areas

Integrated

Portfolios

Subject oriented

Learner centred

Student responsibility

Multiple media choices to demonstrate attainment

Moderated across subject areas

Social and ethical as well as technical

Continuous

Holistic – the whole learner

Peer mediated

Learner centred

Learning community involvement

Open ended

Project based